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What edible russula look like: photo

What edible russula look like: photo


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Mushrooms of the Russulaceae family are represented by more than two hundred species, 60 of which grow on the territory of the Russian Federation. Most of them are edible, but there are varieties that contain toxins and can cause poisoning. There are no deadly poisonous representatives among them, but so that the mushroom hunting trip does not end badly, you need to learn to distinguish between them. Photos of edible russula and detailed descriptions given below will help an inexperienced mushroom picker not to make a mistake during collection.

What edible russula look like

Russula - lamellar mushrooms, demonstrate a richness of colors and shades of color of the cap, plates and legs. They are similar in the shape of fruiting bodies and developmental features at each stage of growth:

  • Young specimens have a spherical or bell-shaped cap, which later becomes prostrate - flat, with a small depression in the center or convex. In old ones, it becomes funnel-shaped, with an even, striped or ribbed edge. The color of the cap of edible russula can be yellow, pink, red, green, blue, black.
  • The plates of edible members of the genus can be thin and frequent or wide and sparse, free or attached to the stem.
  • The legs of edible mushrooms are most often cylindrical, straight, sometimes clavate. They are dense and full or hollow in structure. Like plates, they can be white or colored.
  • The flesh of edible species is dense, strong or fragile, brittle, more often white, can change color with age or when broken, cut. The taste ranges from sweetish to pungent bitter.

Edible russula make up almost half of all forest mushrooms.

Photos of edible russula mushrooms:

Where edible russules grow

The habitats of edible russula differ depending on the species. Most of them prefer mixed forests, some varieties prefer only groves with a predominance of any one species of wood - spruce, birch, beech, or the outskirts of swamps. Each separate species of edible representatives of the species is in symbiosis with specific natural conditions, forms mycorrhiza with a specific species of wood.

Types of edible russula mushrooms

All russula are divided into edible, conditionally edible, and inedible. The first ones have an excellent taste, they can be consumed after short-term processing, dried, pickled, and salted. The latter have a bitter pungent taste and require special preparation. Such mushrooms cannot be dried. Still others are very toxic and should not be eaten. The following are descriptions and photos of edible russula mushrooms.

Advice! Most edible russules are very brittle. To keep them intact, pour boiling water over them before cooking.

Russula golden

It got its name from the golden yellow color of the hat. The leg of the edible mushroom is white, with a yellowish tinge, cylindrical or clavate, naked, 3-8 cm long, up to 3 cm thick. The cap is 5-12 cm in diameter. In a young mushroom, it is hemispherical, convex, later convex-prostrate or flat-depressed, fleshy, with an even or slightly ribbed edge. The surface is at first bare, slimy and shiny, cinnabar red. Later - matte, velvety, with red spots on a yellow background, orange with rounded edges. The plates are frequent, free at the stem, rounded at the edge, cream or yellow. The pulp is whitish, tasty, odorless, very fragile in adulthood, crumbles strongly. It grows from June to the end of September. Edible delicious mushroom.

Russula blue

Bulky, fleshy, edible mushroom. The cap is up to 8 cm in diameter, convex in young fruiting bodies, flat in mature ones with a depression in the middle. The skin is blue, blue-lilac, in the middle it is darker - black-olive or black-lilac, it is easily separated. The plates are white, branched to the edges. Leg 3-6 cm in height, white, dense at first, later loose, hollow. The pulp is strong, white, odorless, with good taste. Grows in sparse spruce forests in August-September.

Russula blue-yellow

Despite the name, the color of this edible mushroom is varied. The hat can be gray-green, graphite, blue-gray, purple, bluish-greenish, yellowish in the center and pink around the edge. Its diameter reaches 5-16 cm. In wet weather, the surface of the cap becomes glutinous and shiny. The plates are elastic, unbreakable, frequent, at first white, later creamy yellow. The stem is cylindrical, dense, in a mature russula it is porous and fragile, 5-12 cm tall, naked, wrinkled, in places with a slight purple tint. The pulp is firm, juicy, white, with a nutty flavor, odorless. It grows from June to the first snow in coniferous and mixed forests. One of the most delicious edible mushrooms of the genus.

Marsh russula

Another name for the edible mushroom is Poplavukha. The hat of a young marsh russula is half-conical or prostrate, with a small notch in the middle and lowered edges, reaching 15 cm in diameter. Its surface is smooth, shiny, sticky, bright red, dark in the center. The plates are loose, infrequent, wide, white or yellowish. The leg is long, up to 12 cm in length, thick, full or hollow, white or pinkish. The pulp is tender, loose, brittle, white. The marsh russula grows in damp pine-birch forests, in blueberries, on the outskirts of marshes, among moss. Prefers peaty soils. The time for the formation of fruit bodies is July-September.

Russula green

It has a sticky, thin, convex-outstretched cap with a ribbed edge, up to 14 cm in diameter. In a young mushroom, it can be whitish, pale green, as it grows, it acquires a grassy green or yellowish brown color. The skin is slimy, sticky, glossy in dry weather. The plates are at first white, later yellowish, frequent, thin, rounded at the edge of the cap. The leg is up to 8 in height, cylindrical in shape, at first dense, later porous. Has a white, smooth, shiny surface and characteristic rusty spots at the base. The pulp is firm, white, with a slight burning taste. Boiling relieves the stinginess of the mushroom. It grows in abundance in birch forests, bears fruit in June-October.

Russula greenish or scaly

One of the most delicious varieties of edible russula. Has a greenish or grayish-green, spotted, flattened-depressed cap with thick wavy ribbed edges. The skin is dry, rough, cracked into small scales. The plates are frequent, white or yellowish. The leg is cylindrical, up to 12 cm tall, at first hard, as it grows, it becomes spongy and fragile. The flesh of young mushrooms is very dense and crunchy, becomes soft with age, crumbles strongly. It looks white, turns yellow on the cut, has a sweetish nutty taste and a weak aroma. It grows from June to the first snow in mixed deciduous forests, more often under oak and birch trees.

Russula greenish-brown

A very rare species, proposed for inclusion in the Red Book in several regions of the Russian Federation. Fruit bodies consist of a flat, slightly depressed cap in the center with a slightly ribbed edge and a dense, even, white central leg 3-6 cm long.The skin is yellow-green, greenish-brown with an ocher or olive tint in the center, dry, matte, smooth ... The plates are white or creamy, thin, fragile, forked-branched. The pulp is firm, but brittle, white, with a pleasant taste, without aroma. It grows from July to October in coniferous-broad-leaved foxes, forms mycorrhiza with birch, oak, maple.

Russula yellow

The edible mushroom is easily recognizable by its intense yellow cap, sometimes greenish in the center. In young fruiting bodies, it is hemispherical, subsequently becoming flat and funnel-shaped with a smooth wrapped edge. The skin is shiny, dry or slightly sticky, smooth, peels off up to half of the cap. The plates are white, yellowish, gray with age or if damaged. The leg is white, even, dense, cylindrical, grayish at the base. The pulp is strong, white, darkening on the cut and during cooking, has a nutty, slightly pungent taste and a sweetish aroma. Grows in damp forests, on the outskirts of swamps, bears fruit from mid-July to October.

Russula buffy or lemon

The most common type of russula, a conditionally edible mushroom. The color of the cap of the mushroom is yellow or yellow-buffy, less often greenish-yellow. The skin is smooth, damp, it is separated only along the edge of the cap. The plates are rare, thin, brittle, adherent. Stem 4-7 cm in height, straight or slightly curved, cylindrical, white, smooth or slightly wrinkled, glabrous. The pulp is brittle, white, yellowish under the skin, darkening at the break, the taste is fresh or bitter, pointed at the plates. Grows in May-October in deciduous forests, oak and birch groves.

Russula edible or edible

Photo russula food:

One of the most popular species of edible russula among mushroom pickers. It has a flat-convex pink-white or pinkish-brown cap with spots up to 11 cm in diameter, with a slightly sticky or matte surface. The plates are frequent, white or creamy, sometimes with rusty spots. The leg is short, up to 4 cm long, white, eventually becomes stained, like the plates. The pulp is firm, white, with a pleasant nutty flavor. Mushrooms are harvested from late June to October in coniferous and coniferous-deciduous forests.

Russula beautiful or pink

The cap is small, 5-10 cm in diameter, with smooth edges. The skin is bright pink or deep red, fading, soft to the touch, velvety, slightly slimy after rain. The plates are white or creamy, adherent to a short, straight, white-colored stalk. Sometimes with a pinkish tinge. The pulp is dense, white, bitter, without aroma. Grows in August-September in deciduous forests, often in the roots of birches and beeches, can be found on calcareous or sandy soils.

Attention! The russula is beautiful - a conditionally edible variety, eaten only after boiling, delicious in vinegar marinade and in combination with other mushrooms.

Russula gray or fading

It got its name due to the property of the pulp becoming gray when broken or with age. The cap is fleshy, up to 12 cm in diameter, hemispherical in young fruiting bodies and flat-convex or depressed in mature ones. It is painted in brownish-red, brownish-orange, yellow-brown colors, has a smooth, dry, matte surface. Plates are frequent, wide, white in young specimens and dirty gray in old ones. The leg is round, made, up to 10 cm high, smooth. Sometimes wrinkled. The pulp is dense, fragile in overripe mushrooms, with a sweetish taste and weak aroma. Grows from June to October in moist pine forests.

Turkish russula

Edible mushroom with a characteristic lilac or violet-brown color of the cap. It has a shiny, mucous skin, which becomes "felt" when it dries. The plates are white or light yellow, frequent, adherent. The stem is cylindrical or clavate, white or pink, acquires a yellowish tint in wet weather. The pulp is white, brittle, with a lilac tint under the skin, in a mature mushroom it is yellow, sweetish, with a pronounced fruity odor. Grows in coniferous forests, fruiting bodies appear in July-October.

Whole russula (wonderful, flawless, brown-red)

The color of the whole russula cap can be red-brown, olive-yellow, chocolate, pinkish-red. The plates are frequent, white or creamy. The leg is straight, slightly tapering downward, white with a pinkish bloom. At first, it has a dense structure, later becomes porous, and then hollow. The pulp is tender, white, fragile, sweetish, slightly spicy in a mature mushroom. Grows from July to October in mountain coniferous forests.

Russula green-red or kidney

Edible mushroom, has a fleshy open or spherical cap with a diameter of 5-20 cm, an even or slightly lined edge, violet-red or red-brown color. The plates are thick, adherent, creamy. The leg is straight, solid inside, white, can be pinkish or yellowish. The pulp is white, yellowish under the skin, has no bright taste or smell. Grows in mixed deciduous forests with a predominance of maple and beech.

Almond russula or cherry laurel

It has a medium-sized hat with a ribbed edge. The color of the edible mushroom changes from ocher yellow at the beginning to brown honey in adulthood. The plates are white or beige. The leg is regular in shape, smooth, porous, fragile, painted in light tones on top, turns brown at the base. The flesh of the edible mushroom is white, fragile. At the cap, it does not have a bright taste, at the stem, it is hot-spicy with an almond aroma. Grows in mixed deciduous forests, beech and oak groves, harvested all summer and autumn.

Valuy

There are many names for this subspecies: goby, cam, snotty, weeping mushroom, pig, egg capsule. The valuy hat is up to 5 cm high, up to 15 cm in diameter, light brown, has the shape of a hemisphere, becomes flatter and slightly concave during growth. The plates of a creamy shade secrete a transparent yellowish juice. The pulp is white, brittle, has a burning bitter taste and an unpleasant smell of rancid oil. The leg is straight, long, hollow, fragile. Grows in damp shady places, in mixed forests with a predominance of birch.

Attention! Valui belongs to conditionally edible mushrooms, contains bitter toxic milky juice, suitable for consumption after 2-3 days of soaking and thorough heat treatment.

Prepare only Valuya hats, removing the bitter skin from them. Tasty only in salted, pickled form.

Podgruzdok

In nature, there are three types of podgruzdki - black, white and blackening. These are conditionally edible mushrooms, which are used only for salting after preliminary soaking and boiling.

Podgruzdok black

The mushroom has a flat-depressed, later funnel-shaped cap with a slightly sticky surface, grayish, olive-brown dark brown color. The plates are frequent, grayish, and have a bitter taste. The leg is short, thick, smooth, of the same color as the cap or slightly lighter, darkens when touched. The pulp is fragile, white or gray, sweetish-spicy.

Podgruzdok white

In another way, it is also called "dry weight". The funnel-shaped white dry cap with brownish-yellow zones cracks during dry periods. The plates are thin, white or bluish-white, with a strong pungent taste. The stem is short, white, hollow in a mature mushroom. The pulp is firm, with an ordinary insipid taste. Grows in forests of any type from June to November.

Podgruzdok blackening

The cap of the mushroom is white at first, gradually darkens over time - it becomes grayish, brownish-brown. On its smooth adhesive surface, adhered particles of dirt and forest debris are retained. The plates are thick, large, rare, at first white, then darken - they become grayish, brownish and even black. The leg is cylindrical, solid inside, smooth, dry, matte. In a young mushroom, it is white, later brown, then black. The pulp is dense, fleshy, with a pungent taste. At a break, it first turns red, then blackens.

The benefits and harms of food russules

Edible russula is a dietary product that leaves you feeling full for a long time. They contain proteins, carbohydrates, omega-3 and omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids, vitamins B, C, E, micro- and macroelements. The use of edible russules helps to strengthen the immune system, normalize the work of the cardiovascular and nervous systems.

The use of edible russula has its own contraindications.They are difficult to digest, are hard on the stomach and are not recommended for people with digestive system disorders. Also, edible russula should not be introduced into the diet of children under 7 years old.

False doubles of edible russula

In the forests and swamps, there are inedible russula, which, by their external features, can be mistaken for edible. The most dangerous doppelganger is the deadly toadstool mushroom. Mature toadstools with wide caps of different colors are often confused with russules, especially with their green and greenish (scaly) varieties. It is easy to distinguish a poisonous mushroom from an edible one by the thickening at the base of the leg and the fringed border - the "skirt" just below the cap.

Edible russula can also be confused with inedible Russula species. They do not contain a poison that is dangerous to the body, but they have the ability to irritate the gastric mucosa, cause vomiting and pain. In addition, a bitter, very pungent taste is inherent in their pulp.

Caustic russula (buccal, emetic)

Recognizable by a red hat with a ribbed edge, greenish-yellow plates, a yellowish white stem at the base, spongy damp flesh with a pungent taste and fruity aroma. Some experts consider the mushroom poisonous, others - conditionally edible. It is salted and pickled after a long soaking and two boiling.

Russula fragile

The fungus changes color in the process of growth, its cap is pink-purple at first, then fades. It has a diameter of 3-6 cm, a flat-concave shape, short scars along the edge, on the purple skin in places there are blurry gray-greenish spots. The plates are wide, sparse, yellowish. The leg is straight, white, later creamy. The pulp is fragile, brittle, white or yellowish, strongly bitter, has a sweetish odor. The mushroom is conditionally edible.

Russula blood red

The cap of the mushroom is red, pink, scarlet, wavy or ribbed at the edges. In dry hot weather, it fades, turns pale, in damp its surface becomes sticky. The leg is often painted in pink shades, less often it is gray. This species is not considered edible.

Birch russula

Has a thick, lilac-pink cap with yellowness in the middle, white fragile flesh with a pungent taste. The skin of the mushroom contains toxic substances that cause poisoning. The use of a birch russula for food is possible with the obligatory removal of the upper film.

Russula bitter or spicy

The hat is lilac or light purple, darker in the middle, the leg is straight, smooth, pink or purple. Its pulp is yellow in color and has a pungent pungent taste. It is not eaten.

Mayr's russula or conspicuous

The cap of the mushroom is colored deep red, which eventually fades to reddish-pink. The stem is very dense, white, brownish or yellowish at the base. Weakly poisonous, inedible species of the genus Russulaceae.

Russula Kele

A dark purple hat with green around the edges, a purple-pink leg make it easy to recognize, not to confuse Kele's russula with edible varieties.

How to distinguish edible russula

Edible russules have so many similarities with inedible russules that even experienced mushroom pickers are mistaken when choosing. They prefer to collect varieties of green, yellow, blue, brown, brown and try to avoid mushrooms of bright red and poisonous lilac color. Many mushroom pickers believe that any russula is edible, you just need to know how to cook them. They consider the pale toadstool to be the only poisonous "russula", but it is easy to identify it by the skirt on the leg. Otherwise, during the examination, the following signs should be alarming:

  • dense pulp and rough plates;
  • streaks and streaks on the leg;
  • unpleasant odor;
  • bitter taste;
  • color change during cooking;

If the appearance or smell of the mushroom is in doubt, you do not need to pluck it, let alone cook.

When to collect edible russula

The picking time for edible russula varies by species. The total time for a quiet hunt is July-October. Some varieties form fruiting bodies as early as June or continue to grow until the first frost. Edible mushrooms are considered suitable for picking, the caps of which have not yet unfolded. Later they overripe, become very brittle and practically unsuitable for transportation. In addition, with age, the fruiting bodies accumulate toxic substances from the environment. The caps of many edible russula have a slimy, sticky surface on which grass, dirt, and other forest debris adhere. It must be removed very carefully so as not to damage the fragile body of the mushroom.

Advice! When collecting edible members of the genus Russulaceae, attention should be paid to their integrity: wormy and otherwise damaged specimens should not be cut off.

Rules for the use of edible russula

Despite the name, edible species are not eaten raw. Their preparation takes a minimum of time, 15-20 minutes is enough. If the skin of the conditionally edible mushroom is bitter, it must be removed, if not, then it is better to cook with it, this will help preserve the integrity of the product. Conditionally edible mushrooms are soaked for 2 hours, periodically changing the water, then boiled for 5 minutes, and only after that they start the main cooking process - frying, baking, salting, pickling. They can serve as a side dish for meat or be an independent dish.

Conclusion

Russula are an extensive family of mushrooms that grow in abundance in forests, glades, city parks, and bogs. Among them there are both tasty and not very tasty, as well as strong-bitter varieties. Photos of edible russula, as well as their burning bitter relatives, will help you learn to distinguish and choose the best representatives of the species during the collection.


Watch the video: Russula caerulea (January 2023).

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