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Every year, with the advent of spring, a hot sales period starts for farmers. There is a threat of freezing frost that cannot be foreseen. In such situations, young plants require mandatory shelter. Previously, a plastic film was used for these purposes, but modern market diversity can drive any gardener into a stupor. Surely many have heard of Russian-made agrotex or spanbond, as well as French agril or German lutrasil. These materials belong to the new generation of covering materials, which are designed to preserve plants growing in open ground.
To protect the beds from weeds, as well as for mulching, the above black materials are used. To choose the right covering material for yourself, it is necessary to study the characteristics of the materials of lutrasil and spanbond, as well as other types and their differences. This is the only way to make the right choice at the time of purchase.
Spanbond is a technology by which non-woven agrotextiles are produced. In the manufacture of polypropylene, the threads of which are located on the canvas and fastened in various ways. The result is a non-woven surface with small pores through which air and light, as well as moisture, can pass. The density of the material, which determines the physical properties and scope of agrotextile, will depend on the method of bonding the threads.
As a rule, spanbond is available in rolls or canvases up to 24 m in length. You can also purchase material in the form of cones and covers. The density of the material shows, how much propylene in grams per 1 square. m fabric:
- From 17 to 30 g per 1 square. m - the thinnest and lightest type of fabric. But appearance can be deceiving, such material is able to protect crops from frost by -3 degrees. This shelter is considered temporary, but with careful use it will last several seasons. Spanbond is thrown on the bed immediately after sowing crops, taking into account the tolerance on the height of vegetative plants. Plants that do not require pollination are allowed not to open before harvesting. Strawberry is covered with agrotextile in order to protect it from frost. The edges of the fabric are crushed with stones or a board. Feeding and watering plants can be done without removing shelters, while the material will remain dry.
- From 30 to 42 g per 1 square. m - a more durable material that can protect crops from frost to -6 degrees and from hail. Shelter is removed and stored until next season.
- Density 60 g per 1 square. m - the most dense and durable material. It is used to shelter greenhouses. Agrotextile is designed for air temperature up to -10 degrees. It can be used all year round. Material of this density is used to mulch paths and beds. Under it ants can equip their housing, but this is rarely a problem.
Tip: agrotextiles with geometric markings will facilitate the planting process.
Benefits of Nonwovens
Non-woven cover materials in arsenal Agrarians appeared relatively recently and have already firmly won leading positions. Unlike the film, they have a breathable structure. However, there are other advantages, which are as follows:
- High density black agrofibre is an excellent weed control agent. At the same time, the gardener no longer needs to weed the beds. This is especially true when growing garden strawberries. With the advent of spring, the soil warms up much faster, the top layer remains loose, and a crust does not appear on it, which will prevent the roots of the plant from breathing. In winter, agrofibre is able to protect crops from frost, replacing a layer of snow. After the rain, the strawberries remain clean and practically do not get sick. The whiskers do not take root, they are easy to remove. Strawberries are planted in cruciform slots in agrofibre. During irrigation, the soil does not erode. The cover can serve as much as the bed with strawberries. In the same way, the soil under the trees is mulched.
- High density white agrofibre covers winter conifers and young seedlings. Thus, it is possible to exclude the possibility of wood heating, as the material breathes well, does not mold and does not rot. Plants can even be wrapped in two layers, securing agrofibre with twine, or put arcs, stretch the fabric over them.
- White low-density agrofibre covers crops for protection against frost. At the same time, the material can freely transmit water and light. The fabric protects crops from various pests and insects. Harvest begins to ripen ahead of schedule. In addition, berry shrubs shelter with agrofiber to protect them from birds. You can sew small bags for bunches of grapes - this will save them from wasp damage and sunburn. Under the material, an optimal microclimate is created without temperature jumps, which is especially important for heat-loving crops.
- High Density Agrofiber, which has UV protection, is used for greenhouses and greenhouses. Can last at least three seasons. After this time, it can be used to shelter seedlings for the winter.
- Very high density materials are used as geotextiles.
- Agrotextile is able to maintain its properties at lower and higher air temperatures. It does not form toxic compounds, therefore it is considered absolutely safe for humans and plants.
- Non-woven materials help to collect a healthy crop of crops, without using any chemicals.
Two-layer materials for mulching can perform several functions at once. The black side cuts off weeds, and the outer white side (or yellow, foil) reflects ultraviolet rays well, accelerates the ripening of the crop. The colored side should always be laid "face" to the crops, and the black - to the soil.
Until now, plastic film has not lost its position. First of all, every gardener is attracted by its price. As a rule, the film withstands only one season under the influence of ultraviolet rays. To slow down the process destruction of the film, manufacturers add various stabilizers to its composition. A light stabilized film differs from ordinary polyethylene in a shade that does not affect the properties, but only indicates a specific type of film. It is customary to distinguish the following varieties of film:
- An ethylene vinyl acetate film with an EVA attachment can last at least 5 seasons. It is easy to distinguish from a conventional film by touch, it is more rubber-like. Elastic and durable, not afraid of frost, able to perfectly transmit sunlight.
- The hydrophilic film with a blue tint is UV resistant. Its composition includes special components that prevent the formation of condensate water droplets. Excessive accumulated moisture flows down the stream in streams.
- The greenish tint of the film indicates its heat-holding properties. Such material is capable of retaining heat well at night - under this shelter, the air is 5 degrees more than under a simple film.
- An orange or reddish film converts ultraviolet rays into infrared. This favorably affects the plants during the growing season. The material also has a diffusion coefficient. If a film with protection from strong radiation is needed in the southern regions, then in the north, on the contrary, it is recommended to increase the luminosity, since there is much less light in this area.
- Air bubble film has several layers. In this case, air bubbles are sealed between the layers, which are able to perfectly retain heat. The thermal protection of such a covering material exceeds the usual tens of times. Ultraviolet transmits better, but the strength of the film is reduced.
- Fiberglass-reinforced film is suitable for the walls of the greenhouse, as it can cut off about 30% of sunlight. During tearing, the glass fiber films will prevent further creep of the material.
Breathing films include reinforced polyethylene with punched holes. This material is relatively new in the market. The transparent film most often covers the tunnels above the beds.
Agrofibre and film comparisons
It is quite difficult to answer the question of which of the materials will be better. Each has its own characteristics. Shelters can also be combined with each other. But do not get hung up on the film or spunbond. They have various properties that can be correctly applied for the benefit of their cultures.
If you come to your summer house only on weekends, it is not recommended to use a film. Under it, crops can be welded if they are not opened during the day. In such cases, agrofibre must be used. Of course, after planting, plants under the film will develop fasterthan under a spanbondbut later they even out in growth.
Spanbond is able to pass moisture through itself, so you do not need to reveal your plantings when watering. So you can significantly save time. Leaves in contact with agrofibre will not die and warp. But spanbond is unsuitable for use as a roof, for example, when sheltering tomatoes or grapes. These crops must be protected from rain to avoid the development of fungal pathogens. In such situations, it is recommended to use a film, since spanbond does not cope with this task.
Under the film, the beds will warm up much faster, so it’s worth wrapping the entire greenhouse with a film. In order to maintain a comfortable temperature inside the greenhouse, a spunbond stretched over the arcs is used or you just need to cover them with plants from above. If you throw a film over vegetating plants, they will "suffocate and burn."
To protect the culturesgrowing in open ground, from precipitation and plants in the greenhouse from overheating - the roof must be made film, the sides sheathed with agrofiber. Thus, the greenhouse will be able to ventilate without the constant participation of humans.
To shelter my lawn at the cottage, I always used lutrasil. Covering material has served me five seasons. Of course, agrofabric is most often used as mulch, but I prefer to lay it on the lawn with the advent of winter. In principle, I am satisfied with the agricultural material, it is ideal for home use.Igor, 35 years old
I have been breeding vegetables for a long time. In my summer cottage there are several greenhouses. As a rule, with the onset of cold weather, you have to use covering material to preserve crops. Most often I use agrospan - a covering material, the characteristics of which completely suit me. The agricultural canvas has worked well among other non-woven materials.Ilya, 45 years old
Previously, he used Ultrasil to shelter crops. But recently I began to use acrylic, as it seems to me that it saves plants much better from frost. Convenient in that it can be stacked on the beds on either side. Of course, in the open ground, crops can not be saved from severe frosts, but this covering material is ideal for greenhouses.Alexey, 44 years old