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Pumps have thoroughly entered our lives. Even in an apartment with a central water supply, we use them in a washing machine, heating boiler, etc. If we talk about the water supply of a private house or cottage, then the use of pumps to provide water supply greatly simplifies life and increases its comfort.
A pump is a device for pumping liquids or gases. If it is used to pump out gaseous mixtures, then it is called vacuum. Both the purest liquids without the slightest impurities, or liquid mixtures, for example concrete, can be pumped, therefore there is a wide variety of types of pumps. In this regard, it is difficult to decide which one to choose.
There are three main characteristics..
- Suction lift.
Flow or pressure - this is the maximum height to which the device is able to lift the fluid vertically up. The reference point for submersible pumps is the water level, for surface pumps the level of the pump.
The pressure determines the force with which water is pushed through the pipe, so when calculating it is necessary to take into account not only vertical but also horizontal sections of the pipe. For this, it is generally accepted that the liquid, passing ten meters horizontallycreates the same load on the deviceas when lifting one meter.
If the source of water is a well or a well, it is necessary to take into account possible seasonal level fluctuations.
Hydro Unit Performance
Performance is the amount of fluidpumped per unit of time, usually measured in m3/ h The performance of the water pump will decrease with increasing height of the rise of water, therefore, in the passport data is given a table of the dependence of capacity on the height of the feed.
Suction height - the maximum distance from the water level to the pump. This is an important characteristic of surface devices. Some types of pumps allow dry suction, but most of them must be filled with water before use, and both the internal cavities of the device and the inlet pipe are filled.
There are several different classifications of pumps: by type of drive, by location and by purpose.
By type of drive
In order for the hydraulic unit to perform its functionsand, it is necessary to exert force that will bring it into action. There are a number of exotic species that work by expanding or compressing gases, driven by a wind turbine, etc., the main part of the pumps by type of drive can be divided into the following groups:
- hand held;
- motor pumps - work due to internal combustion engines;
- electric pumps - pump water through electricity consumption.
Depending on the position relative to the level of the pumped liquid, they are:
- superficial - all parts of the pump are out of liquid, water is sucked through a special pipe;
- semi-submersible - in which the drive and the working mechanism are made in the form of separate blocks, and in the working position only the executive mechanism is immersed in the liquid;
Submersible pumps are designed for fully immersed operation. These are electric pumps for supplying water from deep wells. The case has a cylindrical shape made of corrosion-resistant material and is completely tight, which protects the electric motor from moisture. The diameter of the case usually does not exceed ten centimeters, and the length can be more than a meter.
Submersible Electric Pumps they do not need to be filled with liquid, and the suction height is not important for them, while they have a high pressure.
The engine is cooled by water, so automation is needed to protect against dry running. Such specific features of this type affect the price, which is much higher than that of the surface.
By appointment, the pumps can be divided into the following:
- water supply devices - designed to supply water from wells and boreholes;
- drainage - used to drain cellars, cellars, and so on;
- circulating - are used to ensure the movement of liquids in closed systems, for example, in a heating system.
Electric varieties for domestic plumbing
Electric pumps are most widely used due to their reliability, efficiency, low noise, high performance and ease of use. It is possible to ensure the automatic operation of the electric pump, supplementing its control circuit with monitoring and protection devices.
According to the device, water pumps come in a wide variety of types, but for domestic use several basic types are used. Let's get to know them in more detail.
Water pump device centrifugal type following. The role of the working body is performed by a wheel with blades, placed in the body. The housing has two nozzles: for water intake, located opposite the center of rotation of the wheel, and for supply, located on the periphery in the diametrical plane.
The principle of operation is based on the use of centrifugal force. Water flows into the center of the wheel. Rotating, the blades capture water and discard it to the walls of the body. Thus, a vacuum occurs in the center, under the influence of which a new portion of water is sucked in, and an excess pressure is created at the edges, displacing water into the outlet pipe.
Centrifugal pumps for water can be submersible or surface execution.
The main advantage of a centrifugal pump is the simplicity and reliability of the design, therefore, if used correctly, it will last for many years. It can be used for pumping water with a small amount of impurities, so it is ideal for wells.
The main disadvantage is shallow suction depth. A surface water pump of this type will be able to lift fluid from a depth of not more than eight meters. Hydraulic units of this type are not capable of dry absorption, that is, they must be filled with water before use.
To increase the depth of absorption, injection devices are used that allow you to lift water from a depth of up to fifty meters. The difference between these pumps and centrifugal pumps is that two tubes are lowered into the well, connected at the bottom to the injector. On one tube (small diameter), part of the water from above flows to the injector, due to which a vacuum is created in the second tube (larger diameter), which ensures an increase in the suction depth.
The injector can also be integrated into the pump housing. With this design, the device becomes very noisy, and it is not recommended to install it in residential premises.
Vortex pumps can work not only with an aqueous medium, but also with a mixture of water and gas. Such abilities are provided by the housing design and the use of a special impeller - an impeller. It is the impeller that captures the air and propels it inside the cochlea-shaped housing. There is a small amount of water inside the housing, the air is mixed with the liquid and discharged through the outlet pipe. As a result of this, a vacuum is created in the housing, and water is drawn in through the inlet pipe.
By creating a flow inside the pump, the impeller acts like an injector, this creates a high level of suction force, which allows you to pump water to a height of up to 20 meters, while its pressure and capacity are several times exceed these indicators similar centrifugal pumps.
Such features of the vortex aggregates are also caused by very small (tenths of a millimeter) gaps between the rotating parts and the body, so the pumped liquid should be free of solids.
The operation of the rotary water pump is carried out due to periodic changes in the volume of the working cavity. Hand pumps are most often built on this principle. Such a pump consists of a cylinder moving inside its piston and two valves at the inlet and outlet, when the piston moves downward, water is compressed in the cylinder, due to this compression, water is displaced upward, and during reverse movement, a vacuum is created, and the next portion enters the cylinder cavity water.
From this family it is worth paying attention to vibrating submersible electric pumps - these are low-power water pumps, and at the same time they provide a flow of up to seventy meters. Thanks to the cylindrical body and compact size, they are convenient to use for working in wells.
The device and principle of operation of the vibration pump are similar to manual. The difference between the two is that the piston of the electric pump is driven by an electromagnet, while the piston moves only a few millimeters, but thanks to the high vibration frequency performance ensured about one or two cubic meters per hour.
Pumps can be driven in different ways, but in everyday life, motorized pumps are most often used. Their work is provided by gasoline or diesel internal combustion engines. The design of the actuator allows the pumping of liquids with solid particles with a diameter of up to 5 mm.
The performance of the motor pump is very high, so they are used where it is necessary to pump a large amount of water, for example: drainage of ponds, fire fighting, irrigation of fields. In many respects, motor pumps are lagging behind electric pumps, but they are autonomous, mobile and independent of the power grid.
Inkjet hydraulic devices
These pumps are not able to create pressure at the outlet, but they can be used to raise water from a shallow well to a tank on the surface. There are no moving parts in inkjet devices. The role of the working mechanism is performed by a jet of gas or liquid.
Jet hydraulic devices include aerial lifts. The air lift device is as follows. A pipe of small diameter is lowered into the well. At a distance of 20 cm from the bottom of the pipe there is a pipe to which the hose from the compressor is connected. The pipe should be immersed in water so that the air pipe is at least thirty centimeters below the liquid level. When air is supplied from the compressor, the bubbles move up and pick up water that is above them, in this way the gas-water mixture moves through the pipe and is poured into the tank at the top.
For the most efficient operation of such a device, it is necessary to experimentally select the necessary air pressure in the system.
To summarize all of the above, I would like to highlight the main points associated with the choice of a particular type of device.
- If the source of water is an open pond or a well less than eight meters deep, you should choose centrifugal surface electric pumps.
- With a water depth of eight to twenty meters, it is better to use injection devices that combine the advantages of centrifugal electric pumps and a large suction depth for surface mounting.
- With the supply of water from wells deeper than 20 meters, special deep water pumps will do just fine. The pressure of such devices can reach hundreds of meters.
- As a pump for a summer residence, where you visit periodically, and if you do not need a large volume of water, submersible vibration pumps are well suited. They are compact in size and also affordable, and are easy to get from the source, then hidden until the next arrival.
- When the source of water is several hundred meters from your home, the use of vortex aggregates will be justified.
- If you need to pump large volumes of water, for example, to periodically drain the site, you should consider purchasing a motor pump. She will help out in cases where there is no electricity on the site.
As for the choice of brand and manufacturer, very often the price of products from well-known brands is unreasonably high, and if the material part of the issue is important to you, you should pay attention to Chinese-made hydraulic units. In order not to throw money away, choose time-tested manufacturers. For example, the Chinese company Marquis (MARCUS), which has been operating for more than twenty years, has all the necessary certificates and its own patents, and the variety of products will satisfy the most demanding customer.