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Europeans consider her a favorite of the royal families. Residents of Asian countries compare the beauty of a woman with the delicate and beautiful petals of this flower. In the Bible, he personifies the integrity and high spirituality of man. Since ancient times, this bulbous plant has been considered the standard of beauty and the embodiment of purity. In ancient Greece, the goddess Hera grew and cultivated beautiful flowers, whose name is Lily. The name of this plant in the ancient Greek language - "li-li" - is translated as "white-white2. The inhabitants of Europe, Asia, America are engaged in the cultivation and cultivation of lilies. In Russia, this plant grows from the European part of the country to the Far East.
Botanical description of the plant and its species
Lilies belong to the Lily family. The flower is perennial, growing from the bulb. The bulb of the plant has grassroots leaves, which are arranged in scaly rows. In nature, there are ovoid and round forms of bulbs. The scales of the plant are colored white, reddish or yellow. The onion itself resembles a semi-open lotus flower. White rootsgrow from the bottom. The root system of an adult plant is voluminous, bundled.
Some varieties of the North American plant grow in rhizome, on which daughter tubers form at the end of the season.
Lily is a plant with an upright stalk. Grows up air stalk with a peduncle 60–180 cm long. The stem grows from the bottom inside the bulb.
Leaves are evenly distributed on the stem in a spiral. There are varieties whose leaves grow around the stem.
Lily blooms single flower or an umbrella inflorescence with several flowers collected in a bunch. Depending on the variety of flowers in the inflorescence can be up to 40 pieces. The petals of the flower are separate, at the base form a funnel. The petal is painted with white, red, yellow, orange, pink, lilac flowers. Closer to the base, petals or stripes are necessarily present on the petals.
At the end of flowering, a seed box with three nests is formed. Lily seeds are flat, covered with a shell resembling paper or film. Painted in pale or brown. Able to spread by wind.
International Plant Classification
Species of lilies, there are about a hundred. The largest territory of their distribution is Asia. The North American continent cultivates about 6 species. In the Russian Federation 16 species of plants grow well. Lily grows and is cultivated throughout the country. In the Far East, locust lily bulbs (Lilium martagon L.) eat as food. Garden natural varieties of the central part of the country, for example, tiger lily, are eaten. Her onions can replace potatoes.
The international classification includes nine groups:
- Asian species. Plants of short stature, bloom in small flowers. The aroma of lily is weak. Asians contributed to the cultivation of varieties Aphrodite, Golden Stone, Detroit and others, including with terry petals.
- Curly lilies. The plant grows to a meter and a half in height. Inflorescence forms up to 30 flowers. The flowers are small, up to 5 cm in diameter.
- Snow-white lilies. Flower petals are painted white or pale pink. They have a pleasant aroma.
- American hybrids. Petals are painted in several shades of different colors. Petals at the base are spotty.
- Long-flowered hybrids. They have a strong aroma, but can only grow in greenhouse conditions. Not at all winter hardy. Flowers of elongated long form are tilted down or to the sides.
- Tubular hybrids. Flowering lasts about three months. Plant growth reaches a height of 190 cm. Need support. Flowers reach a size of 18 cm.
- Oriental hybrids are the most common. The flower in diameter reaches 25 cm mostly corrugated. Petals are painted in two colors. Be sure to have specks at the petal. The flower has a delicate pleasant aroma. There are stunted plants that are able to grow indoors and bloom year round. The eastern species has become the main species for breeding varieties of lilies Altari (Altari) or lily tree. This plant is capable of reaching a height of 2.5 meters with flowers in diameter up to 25 cm.
- Interspecific hybrids are gaining the most popularity. Breeders are engaged in obtaining a flower with certain qualities, color and vitality in a certain territory, paying special attention to winter hardiness.
- Natural types of flowers are a material for selection work. We use lilies of snow-white Candidum, tiger or lanceolate, royal Rigl lily, curly lily Martagon, Beautiful, Dwarf, Henry and others.
Asiatic Lily Species contributed to the emergence of hybrids with the color of the petals in black, purple, burgundy shades. The plant was called Landini lily. It tolerates Russian frosts, unpretentious in maintenance and cultivation in the open field. The same species became the founder of the popular variety in Russia - lilies marlene. Planting and caring for it does not differ from other flowers, but a flower blooms, forming inflorescences of many flowers. It resembles the shape of a ball. One stem can have up to 100 flowers.
The classification of plant groups is indicated by manufacturers in Roman numerals. And also the lily is marked by the location of the flower and its shape. The manufacturer indicates the package with the bulb, first a species group, then the letter code for the location of the blooming bud, then the shape of its flower.
- The letter "a" - indicates flowering up.
- The letter "b" is the direction of the flower to the side.
- The letter "c" - informs that the flower falls during flowering.
Through the fraction after the letters, the form designation is written:
- The letter "a" is a tubular-shaped flower.
- The letter "b" is a cupped shape.
- The letter "c" is the designation of a flat flower.
- The letter "d" is a chalmoid-shaped flower.
Even a novice grower can grow a lily in the garden. The plant is unpretentious, does not attract attention to itself, but at the same time it is demanding on the conditions of maintenance and the composition of the soil.
Choose a place to grow lilies, it is necessary considering the variety of plants. Most colors required direct sunlight in the morning. In the midday sunshine, the flower needs partial shade.
The soil for the proper development, growth and reproduction of lily is necessary loose. It is important to provide good drainage to the bulb. Excess moisture should not be trapped in the soil, to exclude the process of infection with fungus and rot.
Roots are preferred to stay in cool soil. To help cool in the heat will help mulch. The thickness of the layer should be approximately 10 cm. For mulch, you can use organics.
The composition of the soil is desirable neutral acidity or slightly acidic. The flower responds well to the application of organic fertilizers when planting. Bulbs of lilies are planted in the ground and grown in this place for two to three years. After this time, they must be transplanted to a new place.
Bulbs can be planted in open ground in spring and autumn. When purchasing an onion in a store, carefully inspect it. Outwardly, it should be uniformly colored, the scales should be elastic, but fleshy. A healthy bulb does not have stains or mold.
Dig the chosen place carefully, make compost or rotted manure. Sand or peat should be added to clay soil or loam. For a bulb, dig a hole 15–20 cm deep and 10–15 cm wide. What the depth of the hole will be depends on the size of the bulb. The larger the onion, the deeper the hole. A bulb with a diameter of 5 cm is buried by 15 cm.
The distance between the bulbs on the flower bed is 12-30 cm. It depends on the selected variety of flowers. Lily Marlene, for example, planted at a distance from each other so that the flowers do not interfere with neighboring plants to bloom.
Lily is a flower that does not require constant attention. Plant care in the country consists of timely watering, fertilizing and timely pruning.
Watering the plant requires warm water. Frequent watering is not necessary for the flower, but the volume of water is large, where a full ten-liter bucket is poured for one bulb. Water should penetrate and moisten the soil around the bulbs.
Fertilizers should be applied every three weeks until the end of the flowering period. Apply nutrition with a low nitrogen content.
Regular pruning and removal of faded buds will help prolong the flowering period. Also, seed boxes should be removed so that the bulb does not waste power on the seed. Cut the yellowed leaves and stem.
At the end of the season, remove mulch from the soil around the plant. For wintering, the stem of the plant is pruned. A small part of the stem remains above the ground - 10-15 cm. With the onset of constant low temperatures, the flowerbed with bulbs should be covered with covering material or spruce branches. In winter, wrap a flower bed with plenty of snow.
In severe frosty climates, bulbs are able to winter. Common varieties of lilies are winter-hardy, but they should be covered, protecting from severe freezing of the soil.
How to care for lilies in the spring, when the temperature becomes stable warm? Shelter is being removed. The dry part of the stem, if it remains, is cut off at ground level. As the soil and air warm up, the bulb will give a new stem and will delight the grower with beautiful buds and a bewitching aroma.