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Growing vegetables in a greenhouse, we hope for a good harvest and high quality of the resulting fruits. But often we get only losses and a bad mood. This is accompanied by a lack of experience, free time, as well as diseases of crops that can develop in a greenhouse and affect plants. In order to fight diseases that can deprive us of the crop, you need to have some idea about them and know how to properly prevent greenhouses.
Diseases of greenhouse vegetables
Today we would like to consider the most common ailments of vegetables, so that each of our readers can independently determine them and treat them as quickly as possible. We will pay attention only to the most popular greenhouse crops.
Diseases of cucumbers in a greenhouse
- Ordinary mosaic of cucumber. You can identify the disease by the curvature of the leaves and complex defects. Subsequently, the leaves are strongly wrinkled and their growth slows down. The disease virus can be carried by insects and live in the soil for a long time. It can be destroyed by steaming the soil;
- English mosaic of cucumber. It is manifested by noticeable leaf defects and growth inhibition. Fruits noticeably decrease, stop growing, become very bitter. The disease becomes more active at elevated temperatures. Sources of infection may be plant debris or uninfected seeds;
- Angular bacterial leaf spot. It leads to a prejudice to the necessary processes for the normal growth of the cucumber, while the crop is reduced by more than half. Sick plants often fade and die;
- Root and root rot of a cucumber. These diseases easily cause plant death. But it can be prevented by simply pressing part of the whip of the cucumber, which is located above the affected area, to the ground, until the stem takes out young roots. To prevent the disease, proper watering and timely top dressing with trace elements will help;
- Ascochitosis, or black rot of cucumber. The disease manifests itself throughout the plant during the fruiting period, in the form of stains and rot of fruits, as well as the spotting of stems and leaves. Over time, the spots become covered with black dots, the tissues dry and deteriorate. The disease occurs due to a violation of agricultural technology, mainly when cucumbers in the greenhouse are watered with cold water. You can get rid of the disease by trimming diseased shoots, but only at the time of formation of black dots;
- Downy mildew. The greatest harm to cucumbers becomes noticeable in the second half of summer. Initially, the plant becomes covered with spots that grow and close, after which the leaves turn and they quickly dry out. This disease can lead to the loss of all leaves of the cucumber, to the death of the plant, and therefore to a decrease in the total yield. In this case, the bushes are simply destroyed, not even leaving the aerial parts;
- Dry spotting. Experts say that this disease affects absolutely all types of cucumbers. Development begins with plants that are located closer to the entrance to the greenhouse, and then gradually cover the rest. Dry spotting is manifested by small brownish spots, which can merge into large areas. With the rapid development of the disease, the deciduous part of the plant quickly dies;
- Olive spotting. It appears on the leaves of a cucumber. The reason is high humidity. Damage to the petioles and fruits is also possible. Spots of an angular shape spread on the leaves, along the very edge, taking on different shades, from brownish to olive-gray. The lower part of the leaf at this moment is covered with a light spider web coating. The disease quickly kills foliage, leaving severe tears and deformations in it. Olive spotting can also be recognized by the numerous exposed leaf veins and deep oily spots on the fruits;
- Powdery mildew of cucumber. Initially, the disease manifests itself on the bottom of the leaf, gradually crawling onto the stems. The upper part is covered with white rounded spots. Severe damage leads to a noticeable deformation of the leaves, which quickly dry out. The fruits are reduced and spoiled in taste, the yield is markedly reduced. The disease most often occurs due to sudden changes in temperature, as well as due to poor lighting inside the greenhouse.
Video - diseases of greenhouse cucumbers
Eggplant diseases in the greenhouse
- Late blight. The most common eggplant disease that can be caused by temperature fluctuations and high humidity in the greenhouse. It manifests itself with dark brown spots, which quickly change color to darker, and affect the leaves. Further, causing a painful coating on the lower part of the leaves, late blight of the eggplant infects inflorescences, fruits and tubers, completely killing the plant;
- Gray rot. The affected parts of the plant are covered with a light gray, fluffy coating, which is then transformed into a form of dry rot. Fungal disease is possible with an excess of moisture in the greenhouse and during sudden fluctuations in temperature;
- Mosaic of leaves. This viral disease of eggplant infects the leafy part, covering the surface with wrinkles and light spots along the veins. The leaves are covered with characteristic swelling, and the fruits harden. The illumination of the greenhouse and the lowered temperature contribute to the development of the disease;
- Internal necrosis. Viral disease, forming dead brown areas on the eggplant. This fact significantly reduces the quality and quantity of the crop. High air temperature and poor illumination of the greenhouse well affect the rapid development of necrosis of the fruit.
Diseases of greenhouse tomatoes
- Blackleg. During the disease, tomato seedlings darken and rot. This leads to the death of the plant. The disease can spread with soil, seeds, plant debris. Promotes the development of excessive watering and thickening of plantings;
- Late blight of tomatoes. A fungal infection most often comes from potatoes, which can grow nearby. The stems and fruits are covered with dark brown spots, which increase and gradually lead to the death of the plant;
- Bacterial cancer of tomato. A bacterial disease penetrates plants through small wounds and develops from the inside. Damage is observed on all parts of plants in the form of small spots and sores, as well as pronounced cracks in the fruits with a characteristic brown color with a light halo. The source of infection, most often, are seeds or the remains of diseased plants. It can be transmitted in different ways - through irrigation, soil, equipment, as well as insects;
- Streak or tobacco mosaic virus. Irregular spots that appear on the leaves of tomatoes, as well as thin strokes of brown and red on the stems and stalks, often lead to the fragility of the plant and the death of some of its parts. The average temperature in the greenhouse contributes to the development;
- Vertex rot. A fairly common disease of tomatoes, affecting unripe fruits. Brown, indented spots form sub-rot of the fetus, thereby reducing the quality of the crop. The disease develops well at low humidity and elevated temperature, with a lack of calcium and high salinity of the soil in the greenhouse.
The list of diseases is quite large, but it is not complete. It is simply impossible to list all diseases of crops in greenhouses, especially since each season a particular new infection or fungal disease appears that transforms, adapts to certain conditions, and infects new crops, which previously had nothing to do with it.
Professionals say that it is much easier to prevent diseases of tomatoes, peppers, eggplant and other greenhouse plants than to remove them from their occurrence. And they are absolutely right, because preventive measures are simple and not as costly as treating plants and losing crops.
How to secure a greenhouse
Today we want to acquaint you with the recommendations of experienced summer residents, who, making a list below, want to help us completely protect the greenhouse from possible plant diseases. What must be done to save oneself from the costs and losses of crops and profits? Read about it right now:
- Never spill the remains of roots, fruits, stems and leaves from plants from the greenhouse in which there were diseased crops into compost. Take the tops off-site, dry and just burn. This will significantly reduce the chances of new plants becoming ill from bait with future compost;
- It is advisable to prepare a new, fresh soil for the greenhouse, not previously used for growing plants, especially in the greenhouse. Perform new beds from compost or well and properly fertilized land. Do not use fresh manure for this, which has a detrimental effect on greenhouse crops;
- Try to constantly cultivate the greenhouse before the new season and planting young plants. To do this, disinfect not only the frame and the base of the structure, replace the earth and remove all old plants, but be sure to work with the cover of the greenhouse, which could also leave pathogens;
- Choose seeds for new seedlings only in stores that have positive reviews and certificates of quality. Seeds should be strong and disinfected. If you are preparing planting material on your own, be sure to make sure that it is taken from healthy plants, tempered and prepared;
- Clean not only the greenhouse, but also some area around the building. Weeds on the street, near the entrance, not far from the ventilation windows, can become a source of crop disease in the greenhouse;
- Fight not only plant diseases, but also pests, which are often carriers of diseases;
- Watering seedlings and adult plants spend only warm water. This will increase the resistance of crops to many infectious diseases;
- Monitor the quality of the soil, its timely loosening. Try not to overdry the soil and not overmoisten it, everything should be in moderation;
- Do not use dry fertilizers, if you do not have experience and do not know the exact dosage, it is better to carry out liquid top dressing, which is most effective;
- Before planting and after it, be sure to temper the material, make sure that it does not react painfully to small deviations in temperature;
- Try to be careful with seedlings and young seedlings. Every, even the smallest wound of a stem or leaf can become a place of development of the disease;
- Follow the rules for fertilizer rationing. A deficiency or overabundance of any element can affect the vital activity and susceptibility of the infection quite strongly;
- The greenhouse should be well and properly illuminated, since sunlight not only heats the interior, but also kills many types of infection;
- Provide a greenhouse with drainage and water drainage. Stagnant moisture is the cause of most diseases of greenhouse plants;
- Diseases of vegetables in the greenhouse, like many other crops, often arise due to excessive thickening of plantings. Remember that it is necessary to observe a certain distance between the seedlings and their rows in the greenhouse. Ideal when adult plants do not touch their neighbors with leaves;
- Remember that crop diseases in greenhouses develop much faster than in open ground. Very often the plants that are most young and weakened by improper care suffer from this. Try to quickly save the diseased specimens or even remove them from the greenhouse, otherwise they can not only die, but also cause infection of other plants.
This list is general and does not mean at all that there are no other reasons for the disease of greenhouse plants. In different climates and in various conditions of detention, there can be many more such reasons. That is why, during the creation of the greenhouse and the beginning of the activity of cultivating crops with its help, each summer resident should think about how much such work he can do. After all, it will not be enough only once to provide the greenhouse with everything necessary, you will need to work every day. Only in this case is a good result possible.